The modified N-CAM items were entered into the analysis in six subsequent sections, according to their proposed structure, that is, according to the mode each item belongs to .
Third, associations between the N-SETMU items (i.e., self-efficacy for using each mode) and the N-CAM scales were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient r.
The results related to the N-CAM items' component structure and internal consistency are displayed in Table 2.
The correlation analyses showed positive, strong, and statistically significant associations between all the N-CAM scales (with item 26 being removed from the problem-solving scale) and the corresponding N-SETMU items (all p < 0.001).
One previous study suggested the N-SETMU to be exposed to further validation procedures , and this study addressed its concurrent validity by investigating the associations between the N-CAM scale scores and the corresponding N-SETMU item scores.
Item 26 of the N-CAM was found to be problematic in the present study sample, as it did not load on the problem-solving scale as expected.
Considering the very high (>0.90) internal consistency estimates for most N-CAM scales and given that the scales were comprised of only five items each, there may be reason to treat the scales with some caution.
29], explaining the concept of concurrent validity, stated that "an instrument designed to capture a variable should show an association with another variable that is theoretically expected to be related to it." In line with the above explanation, we expected the scores on the N-CAM scales and the corresponding N-SETMU items to be intrinsically related.