In contrast, the counterpart NAAEC
Article 14-15 citizen's submission process, instituted to ensure governments enforce their existing environmental laws and regulations, is seen as offering little offsetting equilibrium.
Part 1 of the NAAEC
comprises an ambitious set of objectives including the protection and improvement of the environment, the promotion of sustainable development, and enhanced compliance with and enforcement of environmental laws.
Moreover, the NAAEC
does not require the signatory nations to
35) Although Senator Stevens disapproved of that provision as well, (36) Congress enacted the bill in its entirety, which may permit a characterization of the NAAEC
and NAALC as having received congressional approval after all.
a self-standing agreement, the NAAEC
, which establishes a broad,
218) Although the NAAEC
(219) provisions generally respect state
The North American Development Bank ("NAD Bank") was created by the NAAEC
with the goal of making polluters pay,(114) but in reality, operates to the contrary.
To address a party's failure to enforce environmental laws, the NAAEC
contains a dispute settlement process that can impose monetary assessments and sanctions as a last resort.
Their closing chapter, entitled "Redefining National Sovereignty in the Hemisphere,"(47) identifies the "institutional architecture" of the CEC as one of three main influences which the NAFTA and the NAAEC
will exert on the larger trade and environment dialogue.
establishes an institutional framework for the consideration of environmental issues that arise out of trade practices.
To date, only Quebec and Manitoba have joined Alberta in ratifying the NAAEC
Sanchez (2002) pointed out that, while the United States perceived the institutions of the NAAEC