Other large studies of BLV, including the NAHMS and Baumgartener studies and our previous work in Michigan [5, 8, 9, 12], have used prevalence of ELISA or AGID test-positive animals as estimates of disease prevalence.
found that smaller herds tended to have higher within-herd prevalence, while our prior study of Michigan dairy herds and both the 1996 and 2007 NAHMS studies found that larger herds tended to have higher prevalence [5, 8, 9, 12].
NAHMS is a periodic, national survey and collect on-farm data regarding how antibiotics are administered, and in what situations producers distribute antibiotics to livestock.
However, like NAHMS, ARMS cannot be used to examine trends in antibiotic use over time because ERS does not resurvey the same farms over time or conduct annual surveys on specific commodities.
NAHMS conducts surveillance on a selected meat or poultry commodity once every 5 years, seeking to identify and address animal health and food safety issues of major concern.
The infrequent or passive sampling under NAHMS and NARMS has limited their capacity to make significant positive changes in the short term.
, National Animal Health Monitoring System in USDA.
Many studies have been conducted on the use of bovine colostrums (FOLEY & OTTERBY, 1978), but it has fallen into disuse since the 1980's because of difficulties involving preservation (NAHMS
National Animal Health Monitoring System.
USDA's National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (NAHMS
) Dairy 1996 Study reports that 45 percent of dairy producers were either unaware of Johne's disease or recognized the name but knew little about it.
For a successful passive transfer, the adequate serum IgG concentration of neonatal calves was [greater than or equal to] 10.0 mg/ml between 1 and 2 d of age (NAHMS
National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS
) Dairy 2007: Salmonella and Campylobacter on U.S.