In this sentence, Qutabs supplement faqirs which supplement naibs
in return....the ubtana, a scented preparation of herbs and drugs for the complexion, was brought out" (p.
Panin, the head of the Tsar's Chancellery, the viceroy argued that Muslim law was in a chaotic state in the Caucasus, for reasons that included the inability to understand the Arabic in which the laws were written, the contradictory nature of the commentaries themselves, the arbitrary administration of various khans and naibs, and the prevalence of customary law.
Some local-level native officials of the military-civil administration went over to the side of the rebellion, but the vast majority of the native military elite stayed loyal to the empire, including the naibs who had served under Shamil and retained their positions under the Russian administration, as well as the militias of native volunteers.
Shamil was the only person who ever managed to unify almost all Caucasian nationalities in his Imamat [theocratic state] under the banner of Gazavat, appointing naibs [his lieutenants] to different parts of the Caucasus.
After witnessing the destruction of a Chechen village and the brutal repression of its inhabitants, Tolstoy described the villagers' reaction in his novella Haji-Murat (the real name of Shamil's naib in Chechnya): 'No one spoke of hatred for the Russians.