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Analysis of the data involving more than 250 participants revealed it was possible to distinguish between the participants who had aMCI and those who had naMCI from their eye tracking results.
We included 1,458 cognitively normal participants and 592 participants with MCI in our analyses; of the latter group, 309 had aMCI, and 283 had naMCI (Figure 1).
All AP and noise exposures were more strongly associated with aMCI than with overall MCI or naMCI. Traffic indicator variables were not associated with MCI or its subtypes.
After excluding participants who changed their residential addresses between the baseline and the first follow-up examination, the group of participants with overall MCI contained 511 participants (86.3% of the whole MCI sample); of these, 259 had aMCI and 252 had naMCI. Restricting the sample to nonmovers did not change the effect estimates or the significance level of the observed associations.
[PM.sub.10] modeled according to the EURAD-CTM was associated with naMCI [OR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.49) per IQR (4.19 [micro]g/[m.sup.3])] in the main model.
For instance, Bangen and colleagues (2010) found that participants with aMCI demonstrated significant impairment in specific financial management tasks (e.g., counting money, taking precautions with finances), whereas those with naMCI demonstrated poor performance on abilities related to health and safety (e.g., awareness of personal health status, dealing with medical emergencies) when compared to healthy older adults.
On the one hand, high levels of homogeneity mean that each latent class is associated with a single, characteristic response pattern: healthy [low, low], aMCI [low, high], naMCI [high, low], and mdMCI [high, high].
With respect to our first assessment, although the healthy and aMCI groups, on the one hand, and the naMCI and mdMCI groups, on the other, parallel each other in certain cognitive skills, they cannot be equated in terms of memory function; in that domain, groups aMCI and mdMCI showed similarly poor performance, while healthy and naMCI groups resemble each other in terms of adequate memory function.
On the third assessment, though latent classes continue to meet the homogeneity criterion, the separation among them is significantly less, that is, we observe that differences in probabilities among classes are now lower, particularly between the aMCI and the naMCI classes in terms of tests of executive function and praxis.
Classes Healthy aMCI naMCI mdMCI Total 1 Healthy 86 11 17 6 120 aMCI 0 9 0 1 10 naMCI 12 0 26 7 45 mdMCI 7 8 5 28 48 Total 105 28 48 42 223 2 Healthy 56 26 14 1 97 aMCI 0 0 0 0 0 naMCI 6 4 23 15 48 mdMCI 3 12 2 17 34 Total 65 42 39 33 179 3 Healthy 42 18 17 1 78 aMCI 0 2 0 0 2 naMCI 7 5 15 15 42 mdMCI 0 8 3 12 23 Total 49 33 35 28 145 Eval.
[50-52] However, Guo and colleagues [53] found that MoCA was not as sensitive when screening for naMCI, and other authors [52-54] consider the proposed cutoff score controversial because several items are education-dependent; different cutoff scores for different education groups have not, as yet, been determined.
The study authors found that cardiac disease was an independent risk factor for naMCI, and a same-sex comparison showed a stronger association for women.