Up until this point, scholars have used NAMMCO as a symbol of the imminent downfall of the IWC.
80) In 1992, Iceland, Norway, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands officially signed the Agreement on the Cooperation in Research, Conservation, and Management of Marine Mammals in the North Atlantic and created NAMMCO as the governing body of the Agreement.
A representative from Iceland stated that NAMMCO "was born out of dissatisfaction with the IWC's zero-catch quota, lack of IWC competence to deal with small cetaceans, and the need for an organization to deal with other marine mammals such as seals.
In part, NAMMCO was created out of frustration with the IWC.
At the same time, even though NAMMCO has not replaced the IWC, it has established itself as a legitimate international research and management organization for marine mammals in the North Atlantic.
NAMMCO is a body of like-minded members who support the hunting and consumption of marine mammals.
NAMMCO is divided into four main sectors, consisting of a Plenary Council, Management Committees, a Scientific Committee, and a Secretariat.
Since NAMMCO was formed, two new committees have been created: a Committee on Hunting Methods and a Sub-Committee on Inspection and Observation that monitors the implementation of an observer scheme.
In 1998, NAMMCO initiated an observation plan called the Joint NAMMCO Control Scheme for the Hunting of Marine Mammals.
NAMMCO and the IWC are both governing bodies for voluntary international agreements developed to improve the management of marine mammal hunting.
Although NAMMCO and the IWC are alike in structure and in their ability to enforce management decisions, there are also some distinct differences between the two bodies.
Finally, although NAMMCO and the IWC are unable to bind members to their recommendations, NAMMCO has successfully implemented an observer scheme in recent years that allows NAMMCO to monitor whether its recommendations are being followed and adjust its guidance accordingly.