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Naqia and Sammu-ramat stand out in Assyrian history as two of the most renowned figures of their times.
The only mother/son pairs we can identify with any certainty are Sammuramat and Adad-nirari III, Naqia and Esarhaddon, and probably Esarra-hamat and Ashurbanipal, but these mother-son relationships become evident only after the sons have been designated crown prince or, indeed, have already become king.
The very name of Esarhaddon's mother, Naqia, "pure, innocent one," conveniently provided Esarhaddon with a propaganda tool to declare his legitimacy through her womanhood.
Exceptional women such as Naqia and Sammu-ramat manipulated (with the aid of their sons) this ideology and became unusually prominent as a result.
Table 1: Neo-Assyrian MI.E.GAL WOMAN KING CHILD Mulissu-mukannisat- Ashurnasirpal II None known Ninua and Shalmaneser III Sammu-ramat Samsi-Adad V Adad-nirari III Jaba Tiglath-pileser III None known Baniti Shalmaneser V None known Atalia Sargon II None known Tasmetum-sarrat Sennacherib None known Naqia Sennacherib Esarhaddon, perhaps Shadditu Esarra-hamat Esarhaddon Probably Ashurbanipal; perhaps Samas-sum-ukin Libali-sarrat Ashurbanipal Uncertain WOMAN STATUS IN TEXTS Mulissu-mukannisat- Possibly consort of one king; not consort of both Ninua Sammu-ramat Only appears as queen mother Jaba Possibly consort Baniti Possibly = Jaba; not consort of Shalmaneser?
The only two queen mothers for whom we have inscriptions, Samu-rammat and Naqia, were always careful to include reference to both their husbands and sons, and sometimes even their fathers-in-law.
The bead was originally discussed by Scheil but it is impossible to tell from his publication whether the inscription, which merely says "Naqia, MI.E.GAL of Sennacherib," ended there or had originally continued to include Esarhaddon.
For example, see Naqia's building inscription in Borger, Die Inschriften Asarhaddons, 115-16, and ARRIM 6 (1988): 7 and 11; her dedicatory inscriptions are in J.
Naqia, Esarhaddon's mother, received captives taken on campaign, but she explicitly states that she received them as a gift taken from her son's portion of booty.
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