NAWDEXNational Water Data Exchange
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North Atlantic weather regimes during NAWDEX show Scandinavian blocking to be the dominant regime (blue line in Fig.
A broad measure of forecast quality during NAWDEX is provided by the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) of the midtropospheric geopotential height pattern over the eastern North Atlantic, as predicted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) in fall 2016 (Fig.
The progression of weather systems across the North Atlantic during NAWDEX can be conveniently described as a storyline characterized by upstream triggers, their dynamic interaction with the jet stream, subsequent development of disturbances, and downstream weather impacts over Europe.
6, sequence C3) and is responsible for some of the most dramatic high-impact weather during NAWDEX, with heavy precipitation and flooding across southern France and northwestern Italy in the southerly flow ahead of it (Fig.
HIGHLIGHTS OF NAWDEX. Observations in NAWDEX were organized into IOPs that focused on key weather systems involved in the longer sequences (Table 5).
A unique aspect of this example is the benefit of coordinated flights with complementary instruments to address one of the key objectives of NAWDEX (Tables 1 and 3): observing the strong wind shear and PV gradients near a WCB outflow.
This episode illustrates one of the key NAWDEX aims (Table 1), which is to investigate how HIW events over Europe are associated with complex waveguide dynamics (in this case the formation of a PV cutoff) over the upstream North Atlantic.
NAWDEX was the first field experiment with synergistic airborne and ground-based observations from the entrance region to the exit region of the climatological storm track, and was undertaken to investigate the role of diabatic processes in altering jet-stream disturbances, their development, and their effects on HIW downstream.
Because of the operational limitations on research aircraft flights over the North Atlantic and Europe and the need for high-resolution profile measurements of thermal and dynamic properties, NAWDEX focused on airborne remote sensing observations and the deployment of multiple aircraft.
Importantly, the NAWDEX period contained episodes of reduced predictability, indicating that uncertainties originating in the estimated atmospheric state and model formulation grew rapidly.
To the best of our knowledge, the NAWDEX period provides the most complete set of combined wind, humidity, temperature, and cloud profile observations of the North Atlantic jet stream yet assembled.
Many international institutions contributed to the implementation of NAWDEX and the results presented in this overview article.