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The NCAFS, NCATS, and the HOME were used to observe the caregiver/parent-child interaction and the quality of the home environment.
The NCAFS parent, child, and combined totals were not significantly different for the Hmong subjects compared to the normative sample; however, the combined total was considerably lower although not reaching statistical significance (t = 1.90, p = .07).
The NCAFS parent, child, and combined totals were significantly different for the ethnic groups when education was included as a covariant.
Analysis of Total Scores with Education as a Covariate Tool/Groups Variable Parent Total Child Total F Value Probability F Value NCAFS All groups Ethnicity 4.62 .004* 3.59 Education 26.09 .000* 6.12 White:Hmong Ethnicity 7.06 .01* .43 Education 11.94 .001* 9.74 NCATS All groups Ethnicity 6.31 .000* .22 Education 20.21 .000* .04 White: Hmong Ethnicity 10.95 .001* .11 Education 4.52 .037* 2.66 HOME All groups Ethnicity Education White: Hmong Ethnicity Education *Statistically significant at p [is less than] .05 TAble 2.
The reliability coefficient for NCAFS was r = .85 and for NCATS was r = .80.
NCAFS and NCATS subscale results obtained when comparing the combined normative sample with the Hmong sample identify where cultural differences exist in the tools.
The Hmong sample parents scored lower in the subscale social emotional growth fostering in the NCATS, just as they did in the NCAFS. Three of the 11 items primarily contributed to these differences.
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