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NCGIA, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, (1990), The Core Curriculum, Unit 1, University of California at Santa Barbara.
NCGIA (1989), "The Research Plan of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis," International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 3, 17-136.
These efforts to improve the analytical capabilities of GIS have led to the realization that our current conceptualizations of space and time in GIS are incomplete (Rundstrom 1991, 1995; Huffman 1996; NCGIA 1996; Pickles 1998; Miller 2000).
In the past five years, the NCGIA has presented three conferences focusing on GIS applications to environmental issues (see the NCGIA web site for details http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu).
Case-study methodology has been recognized by the GIS research community as the appropriate approach for studying issues related to diffusion of GIS technology (Zwart, 1986; Niemann et al., 1988; NCGIA, 1989; Craig, 1989; Azad, 1990; Onsrud, Pinto, and Azad, 1992).
http://www, ncgia. ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA FE CD-ROM/sf_papers/collins fred/collins.html.
The term public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) was conceived in 1996 at the meeting of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) in the United States to describe how GIS technology could support public participation for a variety of applications with the goal of inclusion and empowerment of marginalized populations.
1998 Interoperating GISs: Report of the Specialist Meeting (Santa Barbara, CA: NCGIA: Varenius Project)
ncgia.ucsb.edu), an effective community participation in resource planning depends on three fundamental requirements: (1) There should be effective access to information pertinent to resource-use planning; (2) the public should be provided analytical tools to make effective use of that information; and (3) a legislative and institutional environment should be developed to foster effective participation and greater community empowerment.
The Praxis of Public Participation GIS and Visualization, NCGIA Specialist Meeting on "Empowerment, Marginalization, and Public Participation GIS".
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