NCHGNorth Country Herbalist Guild (St. Paul, MN)
NCHGNottingham Combined Histologic Grade
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Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the ERT scores between two groups (CHG X NCHG), six emotions (anger x disgust x happiness x sadness x surprise x fear) and four intensities (40% x 60% x 80% x 100%).
The mean scores differed significantly between the two groups [F (1,116) = 16.33; p < 0.001], with the CHG performing better (mean: 52 [+ or -] 8.7) than the NCHG (mean: 45 [+ or -] 10.3).
The findings demonstrated the following: 1) the CHG performed better than the NCHG regarding the correct identification of emotions (52 [+ or -] 8.7 and 45 [+ or -] 10.3, respectively); 2) the differences were specifically with regard to surprise (60%), disgust (60%, 80%, and 100%), fear (80%), and sadness (80% and 100%); 3) the two groups performed similarly with regard to recognizing happiness and anger; 4) no significant interaction among group, type of emotion, and intensity was found; 5) happiness was identified the most accurately and fear was identified the least accurately in both groups; 6) emotions expressed at 40% intensity were more difficult to recognize; and 7) a significant interaction was found between type of emotion and level of intensity.
In the present study, the CHG was better at recognizing fear and sadness than the NCHG, which may mean that living with an elderly individual at home leads to more opportunities for an older adult to recognize emotions based on facial expressions.