(52.) Blumberg and Warshay to Friends of Soviet Jewry, Memorandum, April 8, 1970, folder 91, box 3, CCSA; Schacter to Conference Membership, "RE: Sending Greetings Cards to Soviet Synagogues," August 21, 1970, folder 6, box 1, NCSJ I-181.
(64.) "Poland and Jews: A Current Appraisal," American Jewish Committee Foreign Affairs Department, March 29, 1968, folder 7, box 353, NCSJ I-181.
(10) To address these questions, we look to the work of local and national organizations associated with the "establishment" and "grassroots" wings of this factionalized social movement, especially the "establishment" AJCSJ (reconstituted in 1971 as the National Conference on Soviet Jewry, or NCSJ, both referred to in this paper as "the Conference"), and its rivals, the youth-oriented SSSJ, and adult-led Cleveland Council on Soviet Anti-Semitism (CCSA), which later led the formation of a national "grassroots" umbrella group called the Union of Councils for Soviet Jews (UCSJ, est.
For AJCSJ files containing American Jewish Committee memoranda regarding the situation in Poland in 1968, see folder 7, box 353 NCSJ I-181.
(75.) Albert Chemin to Israel Miller, July I, 1968, folder 5, box 55, NCSJ I-181; Israel Miller to Richard M.
(95) While at the beginning of 1988, both the NCSJ
and the UCSJ were dismayed that the 1987 figures were not higher, by the end of 1988 the NCSJ
appeared cautiously optimistic while UCSJ and the SSSJ vehemently opposed liberalization of trade until the Soviets opened their gates entirely.
"However," he adds, "the Council did sometimes develop activities that the NCSJ reformulated and adopted." Goodman admits the NCSJ was slow to act due to politics and the number of member agencies that had to be consulted before taking a stance.
In 1973, the first issues discussed by the newly invigorated NCSJ were how to protest the "diploma tax," and whether to support the trade Amendment now in process before the Congress.
Accepted by government officials as representatives of the organized Jewish community, the NCSJ opened an office in Washington, D.C.
In the 1990's she was a delegate for the NCSJ to Human Rights conferences in Europe.
Grass roots organizations like the SSSJ understood that the most effective way of doing this was to activate the American Jewish establishment organizations, which explains why the SSSJ joined the NCSJ
, invalidating the distinction Beckerman draws between grass roots and establishment activism on behalf of Soviet Jewry.