Whether one uses terms like convergence, netwar
, or fourth-generation warfare to describe the systemic characteristics of transnational terror or insurgent groups, the underlying propositions are quite similar--namely that networked organizations are used both to create capabilities and to exploit an enemy's vulnerabilities.
(47.) John Arquilla and David Ronfelt, eds., Networks and Netwars
: The Future of Terror.
The advent of netwar
. New York, NY: Rand Corporation.
From this reviewer's assessment, Like War is a more mature expression of Netwar
as, decades later, many more data points support the contention that the internet will be, or now has been, weaponized.
(17.) Arquilla and Ronfeldt, Networks and Netwars
(org.) Networks and netwars
: the future of terror, crime, and militancy.
In Netweoks and Netwars
: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy, Rand Corporation, pp.
El concepto de Netwar
(Guerra-red) difiere del empleado por el Ejercito estadounidense Netwars
(Network Warfare Simulation System), toda vez que "la Netwar
es de menor intensidad, como contraparte en el nivel social, para nuestro concepto militar de Cyberwar" (5) (Arquilla y Ronfeldt 2001, ix).
(35.) John Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, "Afterword (September 2001): The Sharpening Fight for the Future," in Networks and Netwars
: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, eds.
Sullivan, "Gangs, Hooligans and Anarchists--The Vanguard of Netwar
on the Streets" in Networks and Netwars
: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy, ed.
If the 20th Century was the "American Century," one in which the American Leviathan exhibited an untrammelled military, economic and cultural hegemony, then the 21st Century is likely to be the Digital Age, where states will have to compete in "netwars
" and against "networks", an age of digital diplomacy and social activism, of websites, blogs and "tweets." The end of the American Century and the advent of the Digital Age was dramatically ushered in on 9/11, an event that brought home the stark reality that the walls of the American Imperium could indeed be breached.