NEURODNeurogenic Differentiation
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We further investigated the association of NeuroD variants and HD by haplotype analysis.
Then, (2) Neurog1 binds to form a complex with P300/CBP, and to upregulate neuronal genes such as NeuroD. During late-gestation, (3) both the JAK-STAT3 pathway and BMP signaling cooperate and synergistically induce the target genes, in which STAT3 and Smads form a complex via P300/CBP.
Lenzi et al., "Rapamycin promotes differentiation increasing [beta]III-tubulin, NeuN, and NeuroD while suppressing nestin expression in glioblastoma cells," Oncotarget, vol.
Further studies showed that upon oxidative stress, FoxO1 formed a complex with the promyelocytic leukemia protein (Pml) and the NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1), leading to upregulated NeuroD and MafA expression, both of which are important transcription factors for [beta] cell development and Ins2 gene transcription.
Cepko, "NeuroD regulates multiple functions in the developing neural retina in rodent," Development, vol.
Gass et al., "Neuronal basic helix-loop-helix proteins (NEX, neuroD, NDRF): spatiotemporal expression and targeted disruption of the NEX gene in transgenic mice," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Adding a fourth transcription factor called NeuroD proved to he the tipping point: The skin cells then transformed to functional neurons in the laboratory culture dish within about four to five weeks, expressing electrical activity and even integrating into and interacting with mouse neurons grown on a laboratory dish.
A further set should include conserved neural-patterning genes (for example, otx, gbx, pax6; see Wilson and Houart, 2004) and neural-cell-type-specific genes (e.g., atonal, neuroD, neurogenin, genes for enzymes of GABA and serotonin synthesis), muscle-specific genes (for example, myoD, myosin light chain), and genes associated with chordate-distinctive traits such as the notochord (for example, bra, xnot, chordin), the dorsal hollow nerve cord (nkx2.2, gsx, nkx6.1, msx, emx, otx, vax), gill slits (paxl/9, sixl, casr), post-anal tail (hoxlO-13), left-right asymmetry (nodal, vgl, lefty), pituitary (pitx, pome, pit), heart (nkx2.5), kidney (tcf2l, nephrin), thyroid (ttfl, ttf2), and Spemann's organizer (chordin, noggin, dkkl/2; see Weinstein and Hemmati-Brivanlou, 1999; De Robertis, 2006).
During the study, Chan and his colleagues injected diabetic mice with the gene NeuroD coupled with another gene that produces a hormone that stimulates the growth of islet cells.
Law, "[mu] -Opioid receptor agonists differentially regulate the expression of miR-190 and NeuroD," Molecular Pharmacology, vol.
Kruse et al., "FoxO1 protects against pancreatic [beta] cell failure through NeuroD and MafA induction," Cell Metabolism, vol.