The C and N NEXAFS spectra were obtained with a spherical grating monochromator (SGM; Regier et al.
Normalised NEXAFS spectra were deconvoluted using a non-linear least square fitting method.
The C NEXAFS data confirmed a concentration of aromatic C structures in the PO and CrA+PO treatments, with notable relative enrichment of phenolic C and decreases in aliphatic, carboxylic and alkyl C.
Although the relative proportion of total N concentrations in the CrA and PO residues was similar, NEXAFS data suggested that the structure of the N compounds differed between the two treatments.
By these definitions, 2D-WAXS in transmission reveals bulk orientation states at any point of interest whereas FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS are probes of surface orientation, albeit with different degrees of depth resolution (FTIR-ATR: ~5 [micro]m; NEXAFS: ~2 nm).
Because NEXAFS is highly sensitive to the surface region of sample plaques, molded plaques underwent extensive surface cleaning to remove any contaminants.
NEXAFS experiments were performed at the NIST beam line U7A at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Lab.
CSRF recent publications include reports on new instrumental and technique developments[8-11], many NEXAFS and EXAFS studies of surfaces and solids[12-18], polymer and multi-layer studies[19-21], high-resolution photoelectron studies of surfaces[22-24], and high-resolution spectroscopy (photoelectron, photoionization, photoabsorption and Auger) of gas phase molecules[25-30], Table 4.
this edge ( 50 eV above for NEXAFS to 1000 eV above for EXAFS).
The NEXAFS features are usually not as well understood as EXAFS, but NEXAFS is a very sensitive chemical probe for surfaces and non-crystalline materials.
In the area of spectroscopy, studies range from photoelectron spectroscopic investigations (mostly at unprecedented resolution) of semiconductors, metal interfaces, gas phase atoms and molecules; to NEXAFS investigations of sulphur in coal, and antiwear films on stainless steel, minerals, organic species on surfaces, and gas molecules.
Topics which will be explored in the first six sessions (Monday through Wednesday) include: spectroscopic applications in biochemistry and solids; surface studies through VUV absorption, NEXAFS and PES; chemical imaging with soft X-ray microscopy; X-ray diffraction and scattering studies; chemical kinetics and dynamics; PES of gases and solids; and a variety of biological and materials research applications.