The 2010 NJCLD
report Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students With Learning Disabilities provides guidance in this area (NJCLD
Several models of RTI exist, but all approaches share the core concepts that all students receive research-based instruction in general education, are screened for academic problems for which they need additional support, and are continuously screened with resulting data used to inform instruction (Howell, Patton, & Deiotte, 2008; NJCLD
These options may be combined and should be seen as flexible, depending on changing student needs (ASHA, 1996; NJCLD
An implication of the NJCLD
definition is that individuals will not show the same mix of LD-related behaviors in any particular work context.
These findings support the view that many youth with LD profoundly struggle with reading (Biancarosa & Snow, 2006; Lenz & Deshler, 2004; NJCLD
, 2008), and the majority of students with LD read below their current grade level (Wagner et al.
Related to this concept, students with learning disabilities can benefit from developing awareness of their disability (Cowen, 1993; Durlak, Rose, & Bursuck, 1994; Goldhammer & Brinckerhoff, 1992; Merchant & Gajar, 1997; NJCLD
, 1994; Taves & Hutchinson, 1993).
Over the past two decades since completion of NJCLD
papers in 1987 and 1997, changes in legislation, research, and education have not only brought change to many aspects of assessment and evaluation of all students, including students with learning disabilities, but also stimulated continued efforts to further enhance the assessment and evaluation process, as well as link it to instruction.
Questions have been raised regarding the supply and training of personnel to conduct second- and third-tier intervention in RTI that are administered apart from special education placement (Fuchs & Deshler, 2007; NJCLD
, 2005; Vaughn & Fuchs, 2003).
Similarly, the Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities (ICLD), comprised of federal agencies, issued a definition in 1987 that essentially endorsed the NJCLD
Practices that reflect principles outlined in an earlier NJCLD
paper on professional development (1999) and consideration of the following will be critical in effecting sustained change.
recognizes the disconnect that occurs for students with LD as they attempt to use documentation from secondary education for postsecondary educational settings.
New legislation, advances in research, and changes in practice have occurred in the more than 20 years since the publication of the 1985 NJCLD
paper "Learning Disabilities and the Preschool Child" (NJCLD