(2012), exploiting the differences in judgment involved between JCs and NJCs.
Instead, there is a clear distinction between the impact on JCs and NJCs. Because defensive player effort is not changing and, by definition, referee behavior can affect current JCs but not current NJCs, it is reasonable to conclude that the significant probability increases in the non-diagonal estimates of the upper panel of Table 5 are attributable to changes in referee scrutiny following a JC in the previous possession.
While the results in Table 6 suggest that player awareness is not likely changing in a meaningful way because it does not change following NJCs (especially following steals), it is still possible that defensive awareness of charges could increase following a charge in the previous possession.
They classify the three JCs as calls involving more referee discretion and the six NJCs as calls/events involving less discretion.
(7.) This inter-season variability is in addition to that which affects both JCs and NJCs such as player behavior, randomness, and rule changes.
Thus, 44 of 48 estimates suggest that there is no meaningful net change in player effort following NJCs.
Using the restricted sample, we first present estimates that adjust for the rich set of (pretreatment) covariates available in the NJCS data.
Postrandomization labor market experience (hereafter referred to as "experience") is measured as the total average hours worked per week over the 48-mo duration of the NJCS. Comparing treatment and control group averages of this variable shows that control group Hispanics gained a statistically significant 1.85 hr of additional experience per week relative to the treatment group (21.1 vs.
Nevertheless, the point estimate suggests that experience does play a role since it drops to -6.1 compared to the -13.5 in Panel I and the NJCS estimate of-21.3.
Constructing these variables implies matching restricted-use NJCS data on zip code of residence (made available to us by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.) to county-level unemployment rates from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) for different years.
We provide an explanation to the puzzling result in the NJCS that JC, a federally funded residential job training program, has no earnings effect on Hispanic youth 48 mo after randomization.
Therefore, while Hispanics achieve program milestones in similar rates as whites and blacks (e.g., they "learn" during the program), they do not seem to reap earnings benefits 48mo after the NJCS randomization.