Out of these, 103 (70.07%) drugs are from the WHO EML, and 120 (81.63%) drugs are from NLEM
in government sector, 113 (35.99%) drugs are from WHO EML, and 109 (34.71%) drugs are from NLEM
in charitable sector, while 387 (33.36%) drugs are from the WHO EML and 488 (42.07%) drugs are from NLEM
in private sector [Table 2].
Out of 16 drugs used, 15 drugs were prescribed from National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM
) 2011 (Figure 8).
Total drugs prescribed from NLEM
2015 were 98 (36.70%) and from WHO essential list of medicine 2015 were 150 (56.17%).
Many medicines, such as the anti-infection agent amikacin, and the antibiotic cycloserine, which are included in the World Health Organisation's essential medicines list, are not included in the Indian NLEM
, said Chinu Srinivasan, member of the All India Drug Action Network, which has been campaigning for drug price caps.
An empowered group of ministers has recommended inclusion of 348 drugs in the NLEM
and now its recommendation will be placed before the cabinet for approval.
After inclusion of National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM
), 2011 in the Schedule-I of DPCO, 2013, NPPA fixed the ceiling prices of 530 scheduled formulations.
The relevant data were collected from case records and evaluated for the World Health Organization (WHO) core prescribing indicators, average number of drugs per prescription, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed, percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed, percentage of drugs prescribed from national list of essential medicine (NLEM
), distribution of comorbidities, category-wise distribution of drugs (taking into consideration the number of active ingredients in a multidrug formulation), and reviewed for potentially inappropriate medication using AGS Beers criteria 2015.
The 19th world health organization (WHO) model list of essential medicines (April 2015) contains 29 approved FDCs and national list of essential medicines (NLEM
) 2015 contains 23 FDCs, while there has been an alarming increase in manufacturing of numerous irrational FDCs in the recent past, particularly in India.
The drug prescribing from NLEM
was fair, creating awareness of essential medicine concept.
There were 348 medicines listed in the National List of Essential Medicines ( NLEM
) of 2011.
Pointing out that the UPA-framed NPPA guidelines had sought to widen the ambit of drug prices regulation beyond the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM
) list by including life-saving drugs such as anti-cancer medicines, HIV drugs, anti-tuberculosis, anti-malaria, cardiovascular, anti-diabetes, etc.
"Considering the subdued trend for the past few months on account of the price control notification for NLEM
(national list of essential medicines) segment followed by related trade issues, we expect the market could be closer to the lower range of this forecast by end-2013.