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Preventing NMACs involving IFR and VFR traffic is going to take a rewriting of the rules.
The risk of an NMAC is further increased because an aircraft operating outside of but near a Class B airspace boundary is vulnerable to an incursion into the higher density Class B airspace.
As more aircraft skirt airspace, NMAC risk when exiting the airspace increases--instrument procedure or not.
Other options for reducing NMAC include technology to improve traffic awareness (See sidebar.) and minimizing time in less-positively controlled airspace.
The final approach, touchdown, takeoff, and initial climb to the first turn away from the airfield are considered to be the most critical phases of flight for NMACs. A review of the causal factors for midairs and NMACs reveal that failure to adhere to procedures, directions, and/or instructions; poor or incomplete communications; poor coordination; complacency; bad scanning techniques; and failure to adequately train or supervise personnel are cited most often.
The Naval Aviation Safety Program (OPNAVINST 3750.6R CH-2) says, "A NMAC occurs when aircraft pass close-by one another in the air and, as a result, the pilot-in-command feels the safety of the aircraft or UAV is in jeopardy."
This criteria is used to determine when a NMAC should be reported:
Per the AIM 7-6-3, "Be specific, as ATC will not interpret a casual remark to mean that a NMAC is being reported.
NMAC's work ensures that the board considers members' views on these issues.
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- NM MHC
- Nm state
- Nmai Hka