The rate of [Ca.sup.2+] extrusion in [Na.sup.+]-containing or NMDG
solutions was similar for each glucose treatment (NG, HG) and for the osmotic control (OC), arguing that the primary [Ca.sup.2+] extrusion pathway in A7r5 cells is PMCA (Figure 5(e)).
Myocytes were perfused with a modified Tyrode solution, in which the NaCl was replaced by N-metyl-Dglucamine (NMDG
) (to abolish sodium current), and 100 [micro]M Cd[Cl.sub.2] (to block L-type calcium current) was added.
Both EXL 4261 and EXL 4171 have approximately 10% MMA units and 90% NMDG
. The EXL 4171 also contains a low proportion of reactive acidic and anhydride functionalities (5 and 0.5%, respectively), giving it the ability to react with appropriate, available functionalities.
Guillaume Pailloncy, application and marketing engineer at NMDG, explained, "In its actual implementation, the S-functions model deals with harmonically related spectral components much as does the PHD model.
The NMDG ZvxPlus Nonlinear Extension Kit for Rohde & Schwarz ZVx VNAs consists of a harmonic phase reference that achieves the necessary phase calibration, a synchronizer used in the reconstruction of time-domain waveforms, a connection kit, and supporting software.
FOR MORE INFORMATION Enter www.rsleads.com/004ee-xxx Agilent Technologies N524xA PNA-X NVNA 176 Anritsu SM6430 VectorStar Nonlinear 177 Measurement System AWR Microwave Office Software 178 High Frequency Engineering Sagl RTT Real-Time Tuning System 179 Maury Microwave MT993DO3 Enhanced Time-Domain 180 and X-parameters Load Pull Application Mesuro MB20/MB150 Nonlinear Test Set 181 NMDG ZvxPlus Nonlinear Extension 182 Kit Rohde & Schwarz ZVx VNA 183 Tektronix AWG7000 Series Arb 184 An underlying assumption when working with X-parameters is the quasistatic nature of the system; that is, its time invariance.
Agilent NMDG became independent NMDG Engineering in 2003 at the same time as the arrangement with Maury and since 2007 has been NMDG NV.
As explained by Guillaume Pailloncy, an NMDG NV application engineer, "The NM4463 is a rack-and-stack system that needs to be customized to the customer's needs.
NMDG NV recently collaborated with Rohde & Schwarz (R&S) to develop the ZVxPlus Extension Kit that allows nonlinear harmonic measurements to be made with the R&S ZVA and ZVT VNAs.
In the future, NMDG plans to integrate measurement-based behavioral modeling extraction tools in ICE as well as an easy interface to simulation tools."
Jan Verspecht, one of the key researchers at Agilent NMDG, formed his own company, Jan Verspecht b.v.b.a.