However, to create an optimal market for weather forecasts and services, it is also essential to ensure there is a level playing field such that, for example, commercial arms of NMHSs, where they exist, and private companies can compete on equal terms without undue subsidies distorting the commercial market.
For example, different countries and NMHSs interpret in very different ways both the international sharing of essential data and the definition of additional data that can be sold commercially multiple times.
(6) This has been achieved through large-scale investment in NMHSs' infrastructure and by strengthening their operational capabilities in the short term by pairing with more advanced NMHSs.
This may have been due to the fact that through the CDPMN, there was a wealth of information at the regional scale, as well as nationally, through information generated by the NMHSs. Nonetheless, the 2014-2016 event reinforced the need for drought early warning information to be integrated into national development plans and policies, as well as regional programmes (CARICOM 2015).
For example, the CIMH continues to partner with the health community at regional and national levels, NMHSs, and an international research team to co-design and co-develop a spatio-temporal modelling framework for Aedes aegypti proliferation in the Caribbean.
In particular, NMHSs should receive the necessary support in their mission of understanding weather and climate and in providing necessary services.
WMD also provides an opportunity to draw the attention of the public, decision-makers, the media and civil society to the role of WMO and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in this endeavour.
For this pillar, APCC and SPREP will develop an application guideline for NMHSs to effectively manage the climate information produced by the system and publish climate prediction information for application to decision-making processes.
During the second training in 2016, which had a basic concept of tailoring and downscaling dynamical seasonal prediction, APCC staffs and climate officers from NMHSs jointly identified potential predictors for the downscaling prediction system.
To overcome this limitation, ROK-PI CliPS developed a strategy to split the computation server and the visualization tool to be housed at SPREP and at NMHSs, respectively.
The DWD scientific advisory board concluded in 2006 that the DWD was falling behind the leading European NMHSs in terms of forecast quality and identified the lack of in-house fundamental research and an increasing detachment of research at universities and research centers from DWD needs as major obstacles to progress.
The program is steered and monitored by the program board, whose membership is drawn from the DWD scientific advisory board, the DWD executive board, and additional scientists from academia and from other NMHSs. The board is chaired jointly by the head of the DWD science advisory board and the DWD head of research and development.