This mixed-mode methodology has been used successfully by the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMiHs)  and PRAMS.
 National Center for Health Statistics, National Maternal and Infant Survey (NMIHS) Mother's Questionnaire (NMIHS2), 1998, http://wwwicpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/ 9730.
Prenatal WIC participants in the 2001 ECLS-B are more likely to enter in the first trimester than those in the 1988 NMIHS data reported in Swann (2007), which is consistent with the increase in the percentage of first trimester entrants found in WIC administrative data between 1992 and 2000 (USDA, 1998, 2003).
ECLS-B: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort NCES: National Center for Education Statistics NMIHS: National Maternal and Infant Health Survey
This paper addresses some of these limitations by using data from the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS
) (NCHS 1992) linked to the 1991 Follow-Up Survey (NCHS 1995).
was conducted using a complex sampling design that oversampled for low BWT and black infants; therefore, in order to avoid biasing effects, the use of design effects adjusted models are appropriate.
questioned a sample of women aged 15-49 who gave birth or experienced a late fetal death or infant death in 1988.
was a national population-based survey that collected data about pregnancy outcomes from vital records and questionnaires administered by mail and telephone.
We use data from the NMIHS
, which includes a national, racially diverse sample of mothers.
In urban areas, immunization rates were 63.3% (NMIHS
) and 65.5% (NHIS) compared with 63.0% (NMIHS
) and 67.8% (NHIS) in rural areas.
was a mail survey of a stratified systematic sample of 13,417 women who had a live-born infant during 1988 (1); data from the survey became available in 1991.
The 1988 NMIHS
surveyed the mother on average 17 months after the birth of her child, and the depressive symptoms measure refers to those experienced in the past week.