18], with the NMPO group allocating less time to academic related activities compared to controls (Fig.
The NMPO group reported lower future time orientation compared to the control group (Fig.
The present study investigated the hypotheses that NMPO use among non-treatment seeking young adults is associated with deficits in SF reinforcement and future orientation across time.
The finding that NMPO use is associated with lower hedonic response to SF rewarding stimuli extends prior findings that treatment seeking drug-dependent individuals rated pleasant pictures as less arousing relative to drug-related pictures (Lubman et al.
As hypothesized, the NMPO group also reported lower future orientation than controls, and among drug users, higher levels of baseline future orientation predicted less frequent marijuana and opioid use at 12-month follow-up.
Our finding that the NMPO group spend less time on academic activities and that low baseline academic engagement was associated with greater alcohol use at 12-month follow-up is consistent with other research suggesting that drug use among college students is associated with lower grades, and increased likelihood of dropping out of college or delaying graduation (Arria, O'Grady, Caldeira, Vincent, & Wish, 2008; Suerken et al.
Further, because most NMPO users also used alcohol and marijuana, our design could not isolate the role of NMPO use.
Despite these limitations, this is the first study to investigate longitudinally behavioral economic risk factors for NMPO use among young adults.
Data are presented for NMPO and control groups at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up.
2 Pleasant image valence ratings at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up among NMPO and control groups.
3 Estimated self-reported anhedonia levels at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up among NMPO and control groups.
4 Levels of future orientation at baseline, 6-month, and 12month follow-up among NMPO users and controls.