BP and NNK
can induce benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-dG and O6-methyl-dG adducts in human lung and bladder epithelial cells, but these inductions can be inhibited by acrolein, which also reduces DNA repair activity and repair proteins.
It is seen that electronic cigarettes have a higher amount of NNN when compared with nicotine replacement products such as nicotine band and nicotine gum in terms of TSNAs, and NNK
is higher in nicotine band than in e-cigarette.
, NAT, and NAB contents were determined according to SPE-LC-MS/MS methods [45-47].
and NNK-Ae were purchased from Toronto Research Chemicals (Toronto, ON, Canada).
The main stream smoke of a cigarette contains 310mg of NNN and 150ng of NNK
. These agents act locally on keratinocytes, stem cells and are absorbed and act in many other tissues in the body.
* Brain-damaging neuroinflamation promoted by the tobacco compound NNK
provokes immune cells in the central nervous system to attack healthy cells, leading to serious neurological damage
Researchers at The Pennsylvania State University found first-thing smokers have higher levels of NNAL, a substance produced when the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK
enters the body.
Researchers at The Pennsylv-ania State University found firstthing smokers have higher levels of NNAL, a substance produced when the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK
enters the body.
The Ovambo (OVB) and Naked Neck (NNK
) chickens are closely associated with rural livelihoods in Southern Africa where they are used to meet nutritional (meat and eggs) and economic needs of households (Mapiye et al., 2008).
(44) Analyses of e-cigarette vapor yielded reductions in nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSN) including N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'nitrosanabasine (NAB), and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)1-butanone (NNK
), carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and o-methylbenzaldehyde, volatile organic compounds such as toluene and pim-xyline, the metals cadmium, nickel, and lead, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
With respect to the NSRL hazard quotients for cancer related health effects, four of the nine chemicals analyzed exceeded 1.0 for the direct exposure to users; lead (1.33), formaldehyde (1.64), NNK
(2.36), and cadmium (5.13).
[23.] Sanyal MK, Sanyal S, Bhattacharjee KK, Choudari NNK
. Clinicopathological study of endometrium.