Whereas adherence to different protocols, regimes like: safeguards and verifications, nuclear security, compliance/enforcement, strengthening of export controls; and non-inclusion of the declared-non-NPT states like Pakistan and India in to the fold of MECRs would continue to create further split between the NWS and the NNWS
4) Second, recall that in the 1995 NPT Review Conference (RevCon)--the first one held after the Cold War's end-many NNWS
demanded that the NWS reaffirm Article VI disarmament commitments in exchange for their vote to renew the NPT indefinitely.
Clearly, the NNWS
sought to emphasize that each step counts as an important indicator of the NPT NWS's commitments to nuclear disarmament.
The Model Additional Protocol is intended to apply universally to both NWS and NNWS
, but has not thus far been treated as mandatory under international practice.
In addition to being NNWS
, another reason states such as Denmark and Norway have a particular interest in the creation of a NWFZ in the Arctic is a conscious memory of the Danish experience during the height of the Cold War at Thule Air Base in 1968.
McNamara judges that the United States' retention of its nuclear arsenal as a mainstay of military power sends the message to the NNWSs
that America, "with the strongest conventional military force in the world, require[s] nuclear weapons," thus undermining nonproliferation efforts.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the principal proliferation indicator for NPT NNWS
was thought to be the diversion of nuclear material from safeguarded facilities.
While the NNWS
are legally obliged under the NPT to place their fissile materials under IAEA safeguards, there is no treaty to control fissile materials in the NWS or the non-NPT countries.
The Middle Powers Initiative believes that the NNWS
within NATO have a special responsibility to renounce their membership to the deadly umbrella.
felt that the NWS had not lived up to their end of the bargain: the nuclear arms race had not ended, and the NWS had not demonstrated a meaningful commitment to disarmament.
22) Five nuclear states--the United States, Russia, (23) Britain, France, and China (24)--are thus recognized as NWSs by the terms of the treaties, and all other countries automatically occupy the NNWS
Although Israel is classified as a NNWS
under the NPT, the United States does not elect to jeopardize the overall relationship over this single issue.