The Region of Interest covered by sensor nodes is considered as a plane surface with coordinates (x, y) and sensor node is a disk with center (x, y) and radius r.
Sensor node "B" is called as redundant node, if sensor node "A" is located at optimal position and distance between sensor node A and B is less than 25% of sensing range of a sensor A.
The sensor node, [S.sub.K], is said to be redundant or overlapping node if and only if Euclidian distance, Edst, between the sensor node [S.sub.i] and its neighbor node, [S.sub.K] is less than or equal to 25% of sensing range, [R.sub.S] of Si.
The presence of lymph node metastases upstages pTNM stages I and II tumors into stage III.
Virnig, "Lymph node evaluation in colorectal cancer patients: a population-based study," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.
Boddi et al., "Lymph node recovery from colorectal tumor specimens: recommendation for a minimum number of lymph nodes to be examined," World Journal of Surgery, vol.
When the return value of other nodes is received, the sink node updates the Q value table by formula (6) according to the Q-learning mechanism in the reinforcement learning algorithm.
The source node selects the path with large Q value to transmit the information stably to the sink node.
In ERCD , the witnesses of each node form a witness ring in a randomly selected network ring, and a witness header which is responsible for clone detection is selected randomly from all the witnesses.
In the process of witness selection of LSCD , the witnesses of each node form a witness arc with a certain length in a randomly selected network ring.
Each beacon node estimates the average hop distance based on the localization information of other beacon nodes and hops count.
where ([x.sub.i],[y.sub.i]) and (xj,yj) are the coordinates of beacon node [X.sub.i] and beacon node Xj, [hops.sub.ij] is the hops between beacon node [X.sub.i] and beacon node Xj.