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With affirmative sentences, as in (13)^15), the speaker expects to confirm p, whereas with negative sentences s/he intends to confirm notp, as in (16), which contains the negative counterparts of (15).
Hence, in the case of a negated polarity question like (17), the interpretation in (17a) becomes possible if the question is assumed to be based on the negation of the sentence There is a vegetarian restaurant around here (i.e., [??]'there is a vegetarian restaurant around here'), for which notp is of more pragmatic utility thanp.
By constructing the question with REQUEST and not by means of a qu operator, the speaker who utters (24) is indicating that s/he does not takep and notp to both be possible; rather s/he shows that only the option where p is asserted is considered.
Krifka (forthcoming, 27) argues that questions containing question tags, which are biased questions, involve the speaker's commitment to the truth of the proposition and restrict the addressee's reaction to either accepting p as part of the CG, or to asserting notp without having to reject treatingp as CG.
As negation scopes over assert, the speaker is actually asking the addressee whether the assertion of p (She got A levels) is to be excluded in favour of notp (She didn't get A levels).
In (39), what is asserted is notp, as the affirmative sentence I would think so is negated by means of the negative marker -n't, which occupies a syntactic position within the TP.
By uttering the sentence in (6d)/(3 9) the speaker requires the addressee to consider whether not p (You wouldn't think so) is part of the CG and whether notp is to be excluded in favour ofp (You would think so).
We are loving the sex and sandals epic - who cares whether it is historically accurate or notp FOR those of us not guaranteed a front row seat for London fashion Week the next best thing is The Clothes Show Live at the NEC Birmingham, back again from December 2-7.
The newspapers represented the following regions: Midwest--Chicago Tribune (CT); Northeast--New York Times (NYT) and Washington Post (WP); South--New Orleans Times-Picayune (NOTP); and West--Los angeles Times (LAT).
I think notp DAVID MOYES twice signed Brian ' Bake' McBride - once for Preston, once for Everton.