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In the SEM image (Figure 2(f)) shown agglomerates consist of the spherical, almost monodisperse, NPles created after annealing.
At the same time, average size of NPles in Figure 2(f) is consistent with the average size of grains determined by XRD analysis (Table 1, sample number 1 (40 [+ or -] 3 nm)).
It can be considered as determined that in the result of NP ZnO-Zn annealing at 773 K the initial quasi-spherical metal-oxide NPles with bimodal distribution by the size were transformed to quasi-spherical NPles of ZnO less than 50 nm in size.
Figure 3 shows the morphology of coatings from the NPles of pure and C-doped ZnO deposited on a titanic foil and then annealed together with the foil on air at the temperature of 773 K within 1 hour.
Pure and carbon-doped NPles of ZnO are synthesized by the method of the pulsed electron beam evaporation.
NPles sizes calculated according to the data of BET analysis are consistent with the NPles sizes received from XRD analysis.
It is found that ZnO doping by carbon stimulates the primary growth of NPles along the direction (0001) in the coatings formed upon NPles deposition on the cold substrates; that is, nanocrystals growth in coatings occurs similar to crystals growth in thin films, with the growth anisotropy in the direction of the c-axis in wurtzite ZnO.
Caption: FIGURE 2: (a) TEM and (b, c, d, e) HRTEM images of amorphous- nanocrystalline NPles ZnO-Zn before annealing.