Studies [12,17,18] have been done to assess the long-term effects and have shown that NPSEs may persist for up to 2-3 years following initiation of efavirenz.
The three main risk factors for the development of NPSEs in HIV-positive patients are: pre-existing mental conditions, HIV disease progression and ART.
The plasma level of efavirenz seems to have a place in predicting the incidence of NPSEs since the stepwise dosing of efavirenz is shown to decrease both the incidence and severity of NPSEs.
 Such patients should therefore be monitored more closely as they are more likely to experience a higher plasma level of efavirenz and be susceptible to NPSEs. In an SA context, there are patients who possess the allelic variations, but there is no evidence to suggest that patients would benefit from routine genotyping and measurement of efavirenz plasma levels in terms of therapeutic outcomes.
Studies have been conducted comparing the incidence of NPSEs caused by efavirenz and other antiretroviral agents.
The severity of NPSEs may negatively influence the adherence of patients to efavirenz therapy.
The Clinical Guidelines for the Management of HIV and AIDS in Adults and Adolescents in South Africa  do not discuss the management of NPSEs caused by efavirenz in depth.
The NPSEs caused by efavirenz should be treated according to severity.