may be a regulator of bone homeostasis, but its effect on osteoblast activity and the biological functions involving NPY
receptors in bone homeostasis remain to be clarified.
The samples were used to determine mRNA and protein expression for NPY
* Level two: Cellular level--adaptogens modulate gene expression (transcriptional control of metabolic regulation) of key mediators of intracellular communications involved in stress induced signal transduction pathways, including G-protein signaling cAMP-mediated pathway (Panossian et al., 2013), G-protein signaling phosphatitylinositol and pholpholipase C pathways (Panossian et al., 2013), stress-activated protein kinase JNIK (MAPK-9) (Panossian et al., 2007), heat shock protein Hsp70 (stress-protective effect on cellular level) (Panossian et al., 2009, 2012), heat shock factor HSF-1 (Panossian et al., 2012), neuropeptide Y (NPY
) (Panossian et al., 2012) and forckhead transcription factor FOXO (Wiegant et al., 2009).
Three groups of seven rats were treated as follows: group 1 [saline + saline (SF + SF)] 1 ml saline ip; group 2 [(saline + PTZ (SF + PTZ)] 1 ml saline ip 30 min before PTZ; and group 3 (NPY
+ PTZ) 60 [micro]g/kg NPY
ip 30 min before PTZ [13, 14].
variation as a factor in stress resilience and alcohol consumption in rhesus macaques.
, the weight gain on a high-fat diet with stress was the same as weight gain in the stress-free environment.
In recent years, several researchers have reported that NPY
and its related peptides are important in feeding in mammals and fish (Xu et al., 2015; Zhang et al., 2017).
This suggests that NPY
does, in fact, drive the increased weight gain associated with stress eating.
In turn, these desensitised nerve cells boosted their NPY
levels, which both promoted eating and reduced the bodies' normal response to burn energy through heat, the study showed.
Then, the heightened NPY
levels promoted eating and reduced the bodies' normal response to burn energy through heat, creating a vicious cycle, according to the study.
The effect of competitive and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, ACPC and MK-801 on NPY
and CRF-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain amygdala.
With a group funding policy based on fixed-rate debt, PMICR ratios are below guidelines, notably at NPY
, at the current stage of the price control.