Unlike previous studies which excluded participants with known resistance participants in this study with prior resistance to NRTIs
, NNRTIs and/or protease inhibitors could enroll.
Hastalara Baslanan Antiretrovital Tedavi Rejimleri Antiretroviral Tedavi Rejimleri Sayi (%) 2 NRTI
+ INI 97 (49.5) 2 NRT + NNRTI 16 (8.2) 2 NRTI
+ PI 83 (42.3) NRTI
: nukleozid revers transkriptaz inhibitoru, INI: integraz inhibitoru, NNRTI: nonnukleozid revers transkriptaz inhibitoru, PI: proteaz inhibitoru.
In the NEAT 001/ANRS 143 study (21), DRV/r and RAL were found to be non-inferior to standard therapy with DRV/r and TDF/FTC at 96 weeks (21) although, in individuals with baseline CD4 <200 cells/[mm.sup.3], the NRTI
sparing regimen was less efficacious (proportion of failure at week 96 43.2% c.f.
opened its doors to the first batch of 103 students from 20 states of India, in two fully-residential undergraduate courses - BSc.
3TC, lamivudine; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; ABC, abacavir; AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; ART, antiretroviral therapy; ATV/r, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir; CDC, Center for Disease Control (USA); df, degrees of freedom; EFZ, efavirenz; FPV/r, ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir; IDV/r, ritonavir-boosted indinavir; IQR, interquartile range; LPV/r, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir; NNRTI, non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI
, nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP, nevirapine; OR, odds ratio; p, p-value; PI, protease inhibitor; SD, standard deviation; TDF, tenofovir; W, Mann-Whitney test statistic; [X.sup.2], chi-squared test statistic.
It is significant that approximately a third of the participants (34.3%) had received only one previous ART regimen (RTV- or LPV/r-based first-line ART, including single-drug substitutions from RTV to LPV/r, a single NRTI
switch, or temporary 3TC monotherapy) before starting on the DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimen, which was effectively a second-line ART regimen for these participants.
ART combinations were included; zidovudin/lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and abacavir/lamivudine in NRTI
class, nevirapine or efavirenz in NNRTI class, lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir in PI class, raltegravir, dolutegravir or elvitegravir/cobicistat in INI class .
One patient had multiple major NNRT and NRTI
RAMs (Table 3).
Predictor variables were sociodemographic characteristics (age at ART start, sex, marital status, city of residence, and occupation category); factors related to health care system utilization (referral center of attendance, mean number of medical visits per year, time between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation, and registration of hospitalization); clinical and laboratory data (T-CD4+ lymphocyte count and viral load at ART start and recording of AIDS-defining illness before first ART prescription); and first ART regimen, classified into two categories: combination of two nucleoside transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs
) and a nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and two NRTIs
and a ritonavir- (RTV-) boosted or unboosted protease inhibitor (PI).
For the last two decades the standard for treating HIV infection is a three-drug protocol: "two nukes and a third drug." The "two nukes" are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI
) and DNA chain terminators, like AZT (azidothymidine--Retrovir, which is also a NRTI
Cumulative genotype results performed prior to or at the same time of PhenoSense testing found the presence of M184V mutation in 25%, any nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI
) mutation in 60%, any non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation in 53%, and any protease inhibitor (PI) mutation in 44%.
Logistic regression was used to determine the influence of markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic state, SCORE (combined influence of classical cardiovascular risk factors), use of PI or NRTI
, CD4 cell count and viral load on [CIMT.sub.>0.8mm] and presence of carotid plaques.