By contrast, retirement at age seventy is mandatory in the NSKK. Both churches follow a clergy-centered style of leadership (seishoku, or bokushi chushin shugi) that most clergy in both denominations readily admit encourages passive dependence among members.
For comparative purposes, it is interesting to note that the NSKK has two seminaries with a total enrollment in 2003 of twenty-two students.
In the face of these gloomy trends, we should note that attempts are being made by the UCCJ, and also the NSKK, to address the serious decline in ministerial vocations.
* Within the NSKK in recent years efforts have been made to cultivate lay leadership.
This doctrine, however, has had little impact on the understanding of congregational leadership by either the UCCJ or the NSKK. Traditional Protestant concern for a well-educated clergy, combined with a hierarchical Confucian leadership model that emphasizes the positional authority of the pastor/teacher, has not encouraged an active role for the laity.
As far as the UCCJ and NSKK are concerned, ministry is generally understood to be what "pastors" or "priests" are engaged in, for which the laity bear no responsibility.
(11.) The figure of 56 percent is drawn from the database of the NSKK pension plan, which requires a minimum of twenty-five years' participation in order to receive benefits.
Anderson, "Mission in the NSKK Since the Pacific War: A Preliminary Study," Japan Christian Quarterly [Winter 1973]: 51).
(15.) The age of new seminarians is also increasing in the NSKK. Many begin studies in their forties or fifties, resulting in a significantly shorter ministerial career.
(34) On the confiscation of vehicles in the German Reich see: Dorothee Hochstetter, Motorisierung und 'VolksgemeinschaftDas Nationalsozialistische Kraftfahrkorps (NSKK) 1931-45 (=Studien zur Zeitgeschichte, Bd.
8 Table 3 Allocation of vehicle confiscations by recipient, March and November 1938 Confiscated vehicles Organisation number percentage SA Danube Group 484 44.1 NSKK 221 20.1 NSDAP Vienna District 144 13.1 SS Danube Higher Section 89 8.1 NSBO 46 4.2 HJ 30 2.7 NSV 25 2.3 Other departments 23 2.1 Tyrol District 10 0.9 NSDAP Amstetten 9 0.8 NSDAP St.