Present study also found the highest prevalence of NSSI
among the participants who had severe level of ASD.
, conceptualized as the deliberate destruction or alteration of body tissue without the intent to die (Klonsky, 2007), like cutting or burning oneself, is a growing public health problem worldwide.
is defined as the direct, intentional infliction of tissue damage to oneself without the intent to die (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and is a problem in school settings (Latzman et al., 2010).
Due to its inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--5th edition ([DSM-5] American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) and the rising prevalence of self-harming behaviours in clinical and adolescent populations (Olfson, Gameroff, Marcus, Greenberg, & Shaffer, 2005), studies on NSSI
have increased in the past decade.
typically takes the form of cutting oneself with a sharp object, but it also could involve scratching at the skin until it bleeds, hitting or burning oneself, or interfering with the healing of wounds.
The questionnaire assessed psychosocial risk factors, religious affiliation, attitudes related to religiosity, and presence and frequency of NSSI
The BICA said in a statement that while the state-run NSSI
has not yet formally proposed to hike social security contributions paid by employers and employees, the industrial association believes that it should make its position clear and draw attention to the potential negative impact of introducing additional social security payments on the labour market and the competitiveness of Bulgarian companies.
The behavioral model (Nock & Prinstein, 2004) emphasizes the functions of NSSI
: automatic negative reinforcement (e.g.
includes self-cutting, burning, or hitting until bruised and is defined as the intentional destruction of one's own body tissue.
Common examples of NSSI
include cutting, burning, or hitting oneself.
In his model of NSSI
, Nock (2009) suggested NSSI
behaviors result from a combination of distal risk factors (e.g., history of abuse, parental criticism), intrapersonal factors (e.g., aversive emotion), interpersonal factors (e.g., coping skills, poor communication skills), and NSSI
vulnerability factors (e.g., self-punishment, implicit identification).