Three of the four employee-friendly NSWA variables are positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction.
Model A includes the three employee-friendly and three employee-friendly NSWAs. In Model B, the two NSWA counts become the independent variables.
Understanding the nature of an NSWA helps explain how non-standard work schedules or locations have negative implications for some and positive implications for others.
Composite Variables Employee-friendly The sum of employee-friendly work schedule NSWA count length, employee-friendly work schedule variability, and employee-friendly work location; Min value=0, max value=3.
TABLE 2 Wages of Nonstandard Workers, Compared to Regular Full-Time Workers with Similar Education and Other Personal Characteristics, by NSWA and Sex (Difference in %) Work Arrangement Women Men Regular Part-Time -20% -24% Temporary Help Agency -17 -21 On-Call -21 -9 Self-Employment -25 -13 Independent Contracting -14 -5 Contract Company 0 7 Source: Kalleberg, Arne L., et al.
Although no data exist to document trends, the use of nonstandard work arrangements (NSWAs) appears to have increased over the last two to three decades.
We find that workers in all types of NSWAs except contract work are paid less per hour, on average, than regular full-time workers (see Table 2).
However, among workers in NSWAs, just 12.1% receive either of these benefits.
said the proposal would also allow spring water to be "collected at the spring or through a bore hole next to the point of emergence," as long as it maintains all physical properties of water flowing naturally to the surface.
By late 1998, the North Sulawesi Watersport Association (NSWA) was formed for the primary purposes of: (1) promoting North Sulawesi as a world-class marine ecotourism destination, while improving the environmental and safety standards of local operators; (2) voicing concerns and actively preventing environmental degradation in BNP and surrounding marine environments; (3) cooperating with NGOs and government agencies in solving common environmental problems; and, (4) discussing and formulating programs to improve relations with villagers living within BNP by actively trying to share tourism benefits with these communities (Erdmann 1999: Erdmann et al., 2004).
Questions have begun to arise, however, concerning the effect that zonation plans have had on marine resource productivity (NSWA and BCCF members, personal communication, May 2004).
At a June 2004 meeting of the NSWA, numerous comments focused on the increasing pressures on dive sites, particularly those more easily accessible from the mainland and islands.