The majority of these students had LD, for a total of 69 NSWDs in the WM group, 73 in the VL group, and 64 in the TO group.
For the Strategy-Use Test, where students in the WM and VL groups took different tests, a separate repeated-measures ANOVA with one between-subjects factor (subgroup: SWDs and NSWDs) was conducted for each strategy group (WM and VL) to examine changes from pretest to posttest.
First, the file was split on "subgroup," and two repeated-measures analyses were conducted (i.e., one for SWDs and one for NSWDs).
If a two-way interaction was revealed at the .05 level, the file was split on subgroup, and 2 one-way ANCOVAs were conducted: one for the SWDs and one for the NSWDs. If the main effect of group was significant at the .025 level, further follow-up analyses were conducted using a Bonferroni adjustment for all comparisons at the .006 level.
When the file was split on subgroup, the Time x Group interaction was significant for the SWDs, F(2,21) = 12.90, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .563 (a large effect size), and for the NSWDs, F(2,203) = 367.388, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .780 (also a large effect size).
The paired-sample t-tests revealed a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores for the SWDs in the WM group, t(9) = -6.280, p < .001, d = 4.264, and for the NSWDs in the WM group, t(68) = -29.626, p < .001, d = 8.259 (both are large effect sizes).
A significant difference was found between the NSWDs in the WM group versus NSWDs in the VL group, F(1,202) = 344.281, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .630, and versus NSWDs in the TO group, F(1,202) = 404.275, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .667.
Groups ISWD and NSWD were equally proficient in escaping across trials and Group ISW was slower.
Group ISWD, inescapable shock water deprived, and NSWD, no-shock water deprived, were deprived of water beginning 36 hours prior to exposure to inescapable shock or shock context, with 5-minute access to water per day.
Groups ISWD, NSWD, and NSW were equally proficient in escaping across trials and Group ISW was slower.