In the interstitial fluid, some [Fe.sup.2+] binds to ATP, citrate, and ascorbic acid (non-transferrin-bound iron; NTBI
IO is deleterious since this metal via NTBI
is able to catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which can be an insult in triggering inflammation lead to cell and tissue damage.
All other reagents used for determination of Non transferrin bound iron (NTBI) and tissue iron level were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Merck Darmstadt), Germany.
NTBI ([micro]mol/L) that represents iron not bound to transferrin and not corresponding to heme and ferritin iron was estimated according to method described by  using HPLC technique.
Mouse solute carrier Slc39a14 mediates NTBI
uptake into cells in vitro .
formation and iron deposition in parenchymal cells lead to oxidative damage and determine the clinical features of hemochromatosis .
MDA is supposed to act as indicator of tissue injury and OS.21 In the current study, the higher concentration of MDA in thalassaemic patients are in line with the results described earlier.21 The non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI
) and duration of blood transfusions are indicative as predictors of MDA, because iron stress is reliant upon the duration of blood transfusions and NTBI
displays the availability of free iron in the body.
BTM patients are under continuous blood transfusion, which leads to an iron overload, with a resultant increase in NTBI
that causes greater tissue toxicity than iron in other forms .
We compared 2 NTBI
assays: a labile plasma iron (LPI) assay that uses desferrioxamine as the iron chelator (3) and a microwell modification of a bleomycin-detectable iron (BDI) assay (2).
Hepatocyte uptake of iron-related proteins Form of iron Hepatic uptake Entry into mechanism hepatocyte TBI TfRI - or Through DMTI TfR2-mediated on endosomai endocylosis membrane Direct uptake of Through DMTI, iron after releasing ZIP14 or from Tf on calcium hepatocyte surface channels on hepatocyte membrane NTBI
Direct uptake of Through DMTI, iron after releasing ZIP14 or from carrier calcium molecule (mostly channels on citrate) on hepatocyte hepatocyte surface membrane Ferritin Lactoferrin Herne-hemopexin complex Specific Through receptor-mediated endocytosis uptake Hernoglobin-haptoglobin complex There are some other iron-related proteins or complexes transported to hepatocytes by specific membrane receptors.
These C282Y carriers not only have increased mean TS and ferritin concentrations compared with their wild-type counterparts, but also increased concentrations of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI
In some clinical conditions, transferrin becomes fully saturated, and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI
)  appears in serum.