(17.) The NTOF
measure is preferable to the corresponding Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) fatality measure because it is a less aggregated measure and is a census of all workplace fatalities as opposed to the BLS' random sampling of businesses.
Data on traumatic occupational injury deaths were extracted from the NTOF
surveillance system for the years 1980 through 1997 (see NTOF
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contains information obtained from death certificates from the vital statistics reporting units in the 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia  [*] Crude death rates per 100,000 workers were calculated as the number of deaths among civilian workers for each year divided by the number of employed civilians for each year.
The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities Study (NTOF
, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1989) provides fatality data by state for the nine broad industry categories indicated in Figure 1.
On the one hand, the NTOF
data are derived from a direct count of identified occupational fatalities drawn from death records, unlike the survey-derived BLS series, and this procedure, at least in principle, is not biased against reporting the deaths of independent contractors and employees of small firms, as is the BLS, which excludes both categories.(9) On the other hand, the two-digit matching of BLS data is probably more accurate than the one-digit by 50-state matching of NTOF
Although the NTOF
data "identified homicide as the major occupational hazard for the nation's women," Bell concluded that they significantly "underreport victimization among working women in the U.S.," because studies done on the state level suggest that death certificates will only identify somewhere between 67 and 88 percent of traumatic workplace fatalities (Bell, 1991; 730-731).
The estimates of work-related fatalities of the NTOF
are roughly double those of the BLS data.
By way of comparison, the BLS reported only 3750 occupational fatalities in 1984, and the NTOF
measure recorded 6901 average annual fatalities for 1980-84 (See Moore and Viscusi , 73.).
(+.) The NTOF
surveillance system classifies industries according to the Standard Industry Classification Manual, 1987, which, unlike the definition used by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), includes the oil and gas sectors of mineral extraction in the mining industry.
Narratives of cases identified by NTOF
and CFOI contained varying levels of information; although some narratives specified shape and weight of the bale, others only stated that a hay bale was involved.
[subsection] Data collected through NTOF
surveillance include injury-related deaths of workers aged [greater than or equal to]16 years that are clearly identified as being work-related on death certificates.