NTPENorthern Territory Pidgin English (Australia)
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Four of those wrote about the benefits of NTPE without giving relevant detailed case studies.
Another two studies on the use of NTPE were done with children who had cerebral palsy.
Essential funding criteria apply to the provision of NTPE and it is only available for children and adults in their own home or adults in residential care if they are under the age of 65.
The draft was reviewed by two colleagues with experience in night-time positioning as well as a client who had been issued NTPE after March 2012.
Of the NTPE, 13 (50%) were due to malignancies and nearly half of these were due to bronchial cancer, the other malignancies were single cases of ductal carcinoma of the breast, B cell lymphoma, parotid cancer, carcinoid tumour, basal cell carcinoma and infiltrating thymic tumour.
Equal gender distribution seen in the TPE and NTPE groups differs from that of previous studies where there were generally slightly more males than females.
The older age distribution in the NTPE group might have been due to the aetiological conditions in this group, which are more common in older individuals.
Demographic characteristics and aetiological classification of pleural effusion Aetiology Frequency, n Sub-class (n) TPE 133 TPE-I (75) * TPE-II (58) * NTPE 26 Neoplastic (13) Parapneumonic (7) Others (6) Aetiology Age (years) Gender (n) mean ([+ or -] SD) TPE 33.8 ([+ or -] 18.0) M (67) F (66) NTPE 44.7 ([+ or -] 21.1) M (13) F (13) TPE = tuberculous pleural effusion; NTPE = non-tuberculous pleural effusion; SD = standard deviation; M = male; F= female.
Similar levels of pleural IL-12p40 were found in both groups, TPE patients (988.8[+ or -]686.4) and NTPE controls (1030.9[+ or -]1294.5) (Fig.
The specificity of this test within NTPE group was of 92.9% in malignant pleural effusions, 72.7% in parapneumonic exudates, 80% in trasudates and 100% in miscellaneous effusions (Data not shown).
In this context, studies about different methods, such as the pleural levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA), IFN-[gamma], IL12p40, IL-18 and sIL-2R have been reported as a tool in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis due to the fact that these levels are all significantly higher in TPE than in NTPE cases (5, 6, 13).
In addition, comparison of the pleural IFN-[gamma] levels between TPE and the malignant pleural group included in NTPE, showed that TPE IFN-[gamma] was significantly higher than in malignant diseases, confirming that pleural IFN-[gamma] could be used as a valuable parameter for the differentiation of tuberculous from malignant effusion.