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NUMICNuméro d'Identification Consulaire (French: Consular Identification Number)
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Families in fourteen of nineteen villages established between 1851 and 1871 irrigated fields within oases that Numic speakers had previously controlled.
One Hopi whose life story has been published identified the Hopi Snake and Horn clans as originally consisting of Paiutes.(30) Oral history among contemporary San Juan Paiutes remembers trader grandfathers who were bilingual in Numic and in Hopi.
In fact, one lake acquired a new Numic name perpetuating that cultural shock.
Scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, like smallpox, were largely childhood diseases among Euroamericans, but caused adult mortality among southern Numic speakers with even higher infant and child mortality than the adult rate.
Still, Young's statement and the Table 4 model suggest that the sixteenth century population collapse between 1847 and 1856 among southern Numic speakers was epidemiologically parallel to those reconstructed by S.
Epidemics continued to attack the southern Numic speakers.
An outbreak was noted at Pioche, Nevada, where many Southern Paiutes lived and worked, in August 1875.(76) Frequently malnourished and lacking a precolonization nursing tradition, southern Numic speakers were more likely to die with typhoid and similar debilitating diseases than were Euroamericans whose relatives were more likely to nurse them through the illness.(77)
The shortage of children militated against southern Numic speakers alive in 1872 being able to replace themselves.
The Southern Paiute-Hopi commodity exchange pattern already mentioned evidently resulted in the 1826 measles epidemic among Pueblo peoples spreading to the Numic speakers.
Documentation of Great Basin southern Numic holocaust episodes in the mid-nineteenth century(112) certainly calls portions of these theories into question.
Consequently, we think that reconstructing the process of Mormon trans-Atlantic disease transmission to Southern Paiutes and other southern Numic speakers throws important light upon the earlier process of pathogenic invasion of New World populations.
Mormon European migration to the aboriginal territory of Numic speakers, and colonization in oasis habitats among aboriginal peoples, was comparatively rapid and large-scale from 1847 on.