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Event recording was used to document the rate per minute of NVBs, PVBs, and VSBs during 30 periods across three days.
These behaviors included non-vocal behaviors (NVB) and pre-vocal behaviors (PVB) that served a communicative function.
These target behaviors were defined as follows: 1) NVB included gestural communication such as nodding, head shaking, shoulders shrugging, hand signaling); 2) PVB included sub-vocal non-speech communication such as sighs, animal sounds, popping, and blowing; and 3) VSB included any audible words found in the concise Oxford English Dictionary (2004) and any common forms of slang and colloquialisms.
The observers counted all communication signals (NVB, PVB, VSB), and sessions were summarized by calculating the rate of signals in each modality per minute (i.e., the number of signals divided by the number of minutes in a session).
IOA for each communicative category is as follows: NVB was 100%, PVB was 88% (83-100%), and VSB was 98% (97-100%).
Three 30-minute event-recording observations were utilized to document the rate of NVB, PVB, and VSB per minute in the classroom during class instruction across three different days.
The dependent variables across all sessions of the BEA were NVB, PVB, and VSB.
Figure 1 shows that Rose failed to respond by VSB or PVB and used only a limited amount of NVB. However, she did indicate to her father that she wanted the author to leave the room by pointing to the author and then to the door.
As indicated in Figure 1, Rose failed to respond with VSB, PVB, or NVB during session three, when asked 10 easy questions.
In this study, DRC began with differential reinforcement of NVB, then PVB, and finally audible VSB (Giddan et al., 1997).
Differential reinforcement of modes of communication (DRC) was utilized to increase the frequency of NVB, then PVB, and then VSB in the presence of the researcher (an unfamiliar communication partner).
Rose was instructed that she would no longer receive access to reinforcement for using NVB but rather only when she used PVB.
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