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Applications include vector noise figure, gain compression, IMD, true differential and NVNA.
Agilent's new 8.5 GHz, 2- or 4-port PNA-X model and PNA-X NVNA option are now available.
X-parameters can also define the device's dependence on load impedance when the NVNA is used in conjunction with load-pull tuners from Agilent channel partners such as Maury Microwave."
FOR MORE INFORMATION Enter www.rsleads.com/004ee-xxx Agilent Technologies N524xA PNA-X NVNA 176 Anritsu SM6430 VectorStar Nonlinear 177 Measurement System AWR Microwave Office Software 178 High Frequency Engineering Sagl RTT Real-Time Tuning System 179 Maury Microwave MT993DO3 Enhanced Time-Domain 180 and X-parameters Load Pull Application Mesuro MB20/MB150 Nonlinear Test Set 181 NMDG ZvxPlus Nonlinear Extension 182 Kit Rohde & Schwarz ZVx VNA 183 Tektronix AWG7000 Series Arb 184 An underlying assumption when working with X-parameters is the quasistatic nature of the system; that is, its time invariance.
For devices, with no model available, we can extract these parameters from artificial neural network (ANN) models that are trained with multiple frequency-domain measurements made on a nonlinear DUT with an NVNA. To illustrate applications and generation of nonlinear large-signal S-parameters, we present two examples.
We measured the test circuit on an NVNA using an on-wafer VNA line-reflect-reflect-match (LRRM) calibration, along with signal amplitude and phase calibrations.
According to an Agilent technical note, "The component characterization software for the N5242A-510 NVNA uses the phase data from the U9391C/F to calculate the nonlinear error terms for the PNA-X network analyzers." (5)
Maury's Chief Technology Officer Gary Simpson described recent activity,"During the 2004 to 2007 period, the common industry name moved from LSNA to NVNA. In 2008, Agilent introduced the Model N5242A PNA-X VNA, a mixer-based instrument that can be configured as an NVNA (Figure 2).
NVNA also provides nonlinear scattering parameters called X-parameters.
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