The customer is dissatisfied and therefore performs the following two actions: a) The customer sends NWOM messages to m customers of Pa, with n effectivity probability NWOMe.
From the proposed variables that affect CLV, the relationships between PWOM and NWOM are important to consider.
Unlike WOM and NWOM
, the impact of culture on eWOM and eNWOM could be limited.
Gregoire and Fisher (2006) argued that this behaviour is shown when the relationship between the hotel and the customers turns bitter, then the chance of retaliation becomes greater which motivates customers to reduce patronage, complain and engage in NWOM. Such NWOM from unhappy customers can be harmful as it reflects the reduced loyalty of customers (Triandis, 1994).
Although we did not find any reviews that were influenced by NWOM, it is understandable that the negative reviews are helpful to other potential romantic tourists.
The findings show that NWOM and NR by loyal customers in particular create followers who trust them which are supported by the many symbols of support from other readers and reviewers.
NWOM is a relatively new activist campaign--an offshoot of recent student-led boycotts against the Sodexho Mariott Services corporation.
NWOM, an organizational member of North Carolina-based Grassroots Leadership's campaign to spotlight companies that aid the operating of prisons for profit, kicked off its Lehman Brothers boycott on college campuses on Valentine's Day 2002.
This past April, NWOM joined a coalition of activists asking New York City Comptroller William Thompson to stop accepting Lehman's issuance of city bonds until the investment bank ceases work with the private prison industry.
"There weren't many people even looking at the issue of immigration detentions prior to 9/11," notes NWOM organizer Kevin Pranis.
TABLE 5 Newman-Kuels Planned Comparison Test for Differences in Means Across Distributive and Interactional Justice Interactional Distributive Justice justice High Med Low Hi Repat = 5.72 Repat = 4.61 Repat = 3.49 Nwom
= 2.04 Nwom
= 3.11 Nwom
= 3.89 (n = 43) (n = 45) (n =44) Lo Repat = 2.37 Repat = 2.12 Repat = 1.95 Nwom
= 5.10 Nwom
= 5.49 Nwom
= 5.67 (n = 44) (n = 46) (n = 43) Experimental Condition Repat Nwom
1 2 3 4 5 1) hi dist/hi inter 5.72 2.04 2) med dist/hi inter 4.61 3.11 * 3) low disUhi inter 3.49 3.89 * * 4) hi dist/low inter 2.37 5.10 * * * 5) med dist/low inter 2.12 5.49 * * * 6) low dist/low inter 1.95 5.67 * * * Notes: The data was collapsed over procedural justice.