The FWS must meet obligations under many statutes in its management of the NWRS.
United States, Wyoming sued the FWS and the Department of the Interior for refusing to allow the state to vaccinate wild elk on the National Elk Range, a part of the NWRS.
Similarly, with regard to intensive wildlife management in Alaska, there is direct conflict between the goals and methods of the State's program and the mandates set by Congress for the management of the NWRS.
130) One could argue that the MMOU relieves the FWS of the need to go through the compatibility determination process when the state wishes to take wildlife management action on NWRS lands, or alternatively, that the MMOU requires the FWS to defer to the State regarding most wildlife management matters.
136) The Improvement Act, passed in 1997, unequivocally places the responsibility for management of wildlife on NWRS lands in the hands of the FWS.
A web-based survey was employed early in 2008 to gather information to 1) better understand the role of the NWRS in moose conservation, and 2) identify the most important issues or constraints facing management of moose on refuges.
Management of the NWRS has evolved from the beginning of the 20th century when refuges were viewed as inviolate sanctuaries, and little or any public use was allowed--to post-World War II when refuges were managed increasingly for multiple uses--to the current era (post-1997) when refuges are managed primarily for wildlife.
In 1980 Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) which expanded the 7 existing refuges and created 9 new ones, establishing approximately 77 million acres in the NWRS (about 50%).
I am grateful to all the NWRS staff from the 39 refuges that provided information for this summary, and wish to offer special thanks to Dr.