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Measures from the 2015/16 NZHS were used in the analysis.
Sampling weights were applied in all analyses to account for the NZHS sampling design.
Out of the 13,719 NZHS respondents, 2,957 people reported having been diagnosed by a doctor, sometime in their life, as having anxiety, depression, and/or bipolar disorder.
Using data from the 2015/16 NZHS, the associations between internalising disorders and long-term physical health conditions were examined whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors that included age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.
Given the cross-sectional study design of the NZHS, it is possible the odds ratios identified overestimate the risk compared to longitudinal studies, since the baseline prevalence of mental health problems in people diagnosed with stroke was not controlled for.
The results of this analysis of the NZHS did not differ when anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder were examined separately.
Extant research indicates that Pacific Nations peoples have the highest levels of non-specific psychological distress in both the 2006/07 NZHS and the 2003/04 NZMHS (Mental Health Commission, 2011, 2012; Oakley Browne et al., 2010).
Data from the NZHS 2006/07, by contrast, indicate that Maori peoples sit somewhere in between Pacific and Europeans/Pakeha in their rates of psychological distress.
Available data from the 2006/07 NZHS indicated that Asian peoples had lower levels of psychological distress relative to Pacific and Maori peoples.
(2003) and follows the scoring procedure employed in the NZHS surveys.
These results, which are based on data from 2010, are broadly consistent with the 2006/2007 NZHS, yet they notably differ from the earlier 2003/2004 NZMHS.
The finding that Pacific Nations peoples had the highest levels of non-specific psychological distress is consistent with results from the 2006/07 NZHS and the 2003/04 NZMHS (Mental Health Commission, 2011, 2012; Oakley Browne et al., 2010).
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