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Considering the influence of both nZVC dosage effect and dye initial concentration on the observed kinetic constant, an empirical model was proposed.
Analyzing Figure 7(a), the RB4 degradation rate by nZVC tends to increase with an increasing temperature.
The activation energy of RB4 degradation by nZVC was estimated by applying the Arrhenius equation in its linearized form (see (3)), A is the preexponential factor (expressed in the same unit of k), [E.sub.a] is the reaction activation energy (kJ [mol.sup.-1]), R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J [K.sup.-1] [mol.sup.- 1]), and T is the absolute temperature (K).
The [pH.sub.0] is an important factor in the kinetics of the dye degradation by nZVC, demonstrated in Figure 8.
In contrast, lower pH values accelerate the nZVC oxidation by dissolving the oxide film which covers the metallic surface [28].
The zero-valence copper nanoparticle reuse studies showed in the first reaction cycle the degradation rate was approximately 90%, while in the second cycle the nZVC degraded at a lower rate (73%) considering the same reaction time.
Experimental conditions: [C.sub.0] = 15,0 mg [L.sup.-1]; nZVC dosage = 2,00 g [L.sup.-1]; T = 25[degrees]C.
Experimental conditions: [C.sub.0] = 15,0 mg [L.sup.-1]; nZVC dosage = 1,00 g [L.sup.-1]; T = 25[degrees]C.
Caption: Figure 4: Effect of different sources of Cu (I) on the degradation of RB4 dye: "*": nZVC and "**": cupper (I) oxide.
Caption: Figure 5: Linear curves of the kinetic models for RB4 degradation by nZVC: (a) first order and (b) second order.
Caption: Figure 6: Degradation kinetics effect of RB4 by nZVC: (a) nZVC nanoparticle dosage effect and (b) initial RB4 concentration effect.
Caption: Figure 7: (a) Effect of temperature on the kinetic of RB4 by nZVC and (b) Arrhenius plot for degradation of RB4 by nZVC.