Spectrophotometer 20 Fluorimetry 131 ELISA 22 Radio immuno assay (RIA): 122 Thin layer chromatography (TLC): 21 High performance liquid chromatography 139 (HPLC) Gas liquid chromatography (GLS) 18 Fluorescence polarization Immunoassay 52 11 TDM is unnecessary when Clinical outcome is unrelated 55 Hit and run drugs 168 Drugs with irreversible action 154 dosage need not be individualized 28 Drugs with wide therapeutic range 109 The pharmacological effects can be 62 clinically quantified 12 TDM will be useful in the following situation The drug has a narrow therapeutic range
244 In case of poisoning 181 The therapeutic effect cannot be clinically 106 quantified To check patient compliance 234 Large individual variability in steady 160 state plasma concentration.
Generally not recommended because of its narrow therapeutic range
and the potential for abuse.
Oral anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin(R)), taken on a chronic basis to prevent stroke, have a narrow therapeutic range
that can be upset by changes in diet, exercise or metabolic state, leaving patients drifting outside the therapeutic range and therefore at risk of stroke or hemorrhage.
The FDA tested more than 400 samples of what are known as "narrow therapeutic range
drugs," made by more than 73 different generic and brand-name manufacturers.
It tested over 2,800 samples of widely used generic drugs, as well as a number of "narrow therapeutic range
" generics, for strength, uniformity and rate of dissolution.
However, fampridine's narrow therapeutic range
makes plasma levels difficult to regulate with the immediate-release formulation, which is associated with an increased risk of seizures.
Warfarin, a commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug used to prevent thrombosis, has a narrow therapeutic range
, and small dose variations may result in hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications.
Spitz finds disconcerting because of the drug's narrow therapeutic range
, complex pharmacokinetics, associated accelerated bone loss, and reduced hepatic clearance in the elderly.
NEW YORK -- St.John's wort can decrease blood levels of cyclosporine, which can be problematic given the immunosuppressant s narrow therapeutic range
Bolar suspended distribution of its entire product line on February 5 after coming to terms on February 2 with the FDA, so that the agency could conduct an audit of Bolar's narrow therapeutic range
However, fampridine has a narrow therapeutic range
and plasma levels are difficult to regulate with the immediate-release formulation.
Pharmacogenetic testing for dosage individualization is of particular interest for drugs with a narrow therapeutic range
. The complexity of genetic interactions, the effects of disease, and other environmental factors complicate the interpretation of pharmacogenetic results.