To date, many appetite-regulating peptides have been identified in fish including cocaine, leptin (Zhang et al., 1994), ghrelin (GRLN) (Zhou et al., 2016), peptide YY (PYY) (Holzer et al., 2012), neuropeptide Y
(NPY) (Wei et al., 2014; Volkoff, 2016).
Chronic administration of neuropeptide Y
into the lateral ventricle of C57BL/6J male mice produces an obesity syndrome including hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and hypogonadism.
Baraban, "Neuropeptide Y
and limbic seizures," Reviews in the Neurosciences, vol.
Holzer, "The homeostatic role of neuropeptide Y
in immune function and its impact on mood and behaviour," Acta Physiologica, vol.
The neuropeptides used in the study were human neuropeptide Y
(NPY; Sigma, USA) and substance P (SP; Sigma).
(NPY) is the most abundant peptide hormone of the central nervous system.
"Most of the known compounds that target neuropeptide Y
receptors do not cross a naturally protective barrier in the central nervous system known as the blood-brain barrier," Hodge explains.
is normally present in CSF, which makes Kalra and his colleagues suspect that the fluid carries the peptide to the hypothalamus, the brain region where the molecule seems to act to produce feeding behavior.
"What this research shows is that your sensitivity to ethanol (alcohol) and the amount of ethanol you consume is related to the neuropeptide Y
in your brain," Ms Caroline Small, a behavioural scientist at Hammersmith Hospital in London, said.
Within the ARC, there are two types of neuropeptides: orexigenic neuropeptides: neuropeptide Y
(NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP); and anorectic neuropeptides: pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated tran-script (CART); the balance between NPY/AgRP and POMC/CART expressions can inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure (Friedman and Halaas, 1998).
Researchers have linked the role of neuropeptide Y
and the amygdale in determining alcohol dependence.
Mice genetically engineered to lack neuropeptide Y
, or NPY, a modulator of brain activity, shrug off the sedative effects of alcohol faster than normal mice and are apt to drink more of it when given the chance, researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle report in the Nov.