They emphasized that never-married women
enjoyed more freedom since they did not have a husband or children to care for and could follow a vocation or develop close ties with other women.
comparing never-married women
and men who are past the child-bearing years and who both work full-time in the twenty-first century shows women of this description earning more than men of the same description.
For example, in Kenya, never-married women
were more likely than ever-married women to have used the method in the past year (13% vs.
We, also, have seen a difference between the number of never-married women
and nulliparous-married women, which may reflect difficulties in conceiving, but we cannot form any reliable conclusion regarding effect of sub-fertility, which needs to be studied further.
The analyses presented here examine not just married women with spouse present, but also single women--a group that has been defined in this article as comprising divorced, widowed, and never-married women
, as well as those with spouse absent.
Larry Ganong, co-chair of Human Development and Family Studies in the College of Human Environmental Sciences, said: "We found that never-married women
's social environments are characterized by pressure to conform to the conventional life pathway.
They found that health had improved for all unmarried black and white men and women studied and for never-married women
, but the never-married men improved most.
Given the nature of the research questions, the respondents were limited to never-married women
Ever-married women also were more likely than never-married women
to report having used the method.
Watts addresses the spaces available to never-married women
, arguing that "the material and spatial terms that characterize and constrain women's lives" explore Wharton's ideas about "individual rights" and with them "possessive individualism" (188-89).
To focus on a relatively homogeneous set of women for whom the decision-making process is likely to be similar, they are classified into three marital-status categories: Never-married women
, married women with a spouse present, and other-marital-status women.
Of the hourly workers who earned the prevailing minimum wage or less, 66% were women and about 40% were never-married women