Yet, Ni Putes ni Soumises has managed to more effectively initiate a contentious but complex public debate that takes on violence in multiple forms.
(44) Ironically, it is my hope that the French context, or at least the questions posed by the group Ni Putes ni Soumises, can open up precisely this politics of listening in the German context.
Groups such as Ni Putes ni Soumises have begun to further think about violence against women in Muslim communities in the context of a range of violence that exists, linked to forms of masculinities produced by complex intersections of "traditional" or "Muslim" cultures with the experiences of racism in French society.
Part of what is remarkable about Ni Putes ni Soumises is the way in which they have been able to promote a discourse about violence that transcends many of the typical dichotomies predominating in the German examples I gave.
While it is clear that Ates struggles at least in part with the complexities of the intersecting forces that contribute to violence against women in Muslim immigrant communities, these complexities are juxtaposed with simplistic descriptions of "our culture." Amara and the members of Ni Putes ni Soumises, on the other hand, are able to also articulate visions for change.
Perhaps Ni Putes ni Soumises's admonition to consider a range of violence has also been more effective because of the more obvious connections between contemporary citizens with immigrant heritage and histories of colonial violence.
I initially thought that it was perhaps precisely this more complex engagement with Muslim communities that permitted Ni Putes ni Soumises to be a much more visible organized social movement than any of its counterparts in Germany.
In 2001, she collaborated in organizing the Estates General of Neighborhood Women and their publication in 2002 of a national petition, Ni Putes Ni Soumises
, "a manifesto of demands" (113) that was initially ignored by politicians and the media.
Sohane's violent murder became a rallying cry for the Ni Putes Ni Soumises
movement that swept through France the following year, demonstrating against the frequent but often tolerated violence against women in France's dominantly Muslim immigrant communities.