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References in periodicals archive ?
In total, 330 unique chemicals were used in the analysis, including 128 carcinogens, 168 noncarcinogens, 100 genotoxicants, and 161 nongenotoxicants.
For noncarcinogens, estimates were based on comparison of estimated ambient concentrations with chronic noncancer inhalation reference values, either reference concentrations (RfCs) used by the U.S.
But even here, non-zero numerical cutoffs may creep in, given our uncertainty about the causal laws or about the strength of structures--just as non-zero cutoffs creep into the regulation of noncarcinogens via the "safety factors." For example, an agency decisionmaker told to design, or specify regulations for, a class of structures sufficient to ensure that they survive the probable maximum event might be told that he should be 95 percent certain of survival.
1990) (adding section 112(g), which allowed a source an "alternative emission limitation" if it could show, for carcinogens, that it poses no more than a one in one million risk of cancer to the "actual person who is most exposed to [its hazardous air pollutant] emissions" and, for noncarcinogens, show that its emissions "do not exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety").
For noncarcinogens, response generally is modeled as a nonlinear function of dose, which suggests the use of the following simple and commonly used form (ICF 1986):(3)
Since the percentages of xylene, cumene and biphenyl in Part I and xylene and biphenyl in Part II are below the SARA diminimus level (1% for noncarcinogens and 0.1% for carcinogens), no inventory or further calculations for these chemicals from this binder are necessary.
where Efr is exposure frequency assumed to be 365 days [year.sup.-1], ED is exposure duration in 56 years equivalent to an average lifetime, FIR is average daily consumption in kg [person.sup.-1][day.sup.-1], C is concentration of metal in food sample in mg/kg, RfDo is reference dose in mg/kg [day.sup.-1], and ATn is average exposure time for noncarcinogens in days.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) thresholds of 0.1% for carcinogens or 1.0% for noncarcinogens.
They also argue that "risk assessments should not assume thresholds for noncarcinogens as well as carcinogens, especially for toxins shown in epidemiologic data to exhibit no apparent threshold and those not yet adequately tested for developmental toxicity."
"What you're really interested in,' hesays, "is not the number of carcinogens found, so much as [an accurate] discrimination between carcinogens and noncarcinogens.' After testing 73 chemicals, the researchers conclude that "no battery of tests constructed from these assays improved substantially on the overall performance of the [Ames] .
OSHA thresholds of 0.1% for carcinogens or 1.0 % for noncarcinogens.
This includes facilities permitted as "synthetic minor sources." It is important to note that these rules would only be applicable if the facilities utilized raw materials containing the representative "HAPs of concern" as specified in each of the rules above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) thresholds of 0.1% for carcinogens or 1.0% for noncarcinogens. Specific details on each rulemaking are provided below.