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References in periodicals archive ?
But even here, non-zero numerical cutoffs may creep in, given our uncertainty about the causal laws or about the strength of structures--just as non-zero cutoffs creep into the regulation of noncarcinogens via the "safety factors.
For noncarcinogens, estimates were based on comparison of estimated ambient concentrations with chronic noncancer inhalation reference values, either reference concentrations (RfCs) used by the U.
1990) (adding section 112(g), which allowed a source an "alternative emission limitation" if it could show, for carcinogens, that it poses no more than a one in one million risk of cancer to the "actual person who is most exposed to [its hazardous air pollutant] emissions" and, for noncarcinogens, show that its emissions "do not exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety").
If the cost of false negatives is very high-- and it may be to a firm formulating a new consumer product--then the test that most reliably identifies true-negatives or noncarcinogens, would be most useful.
These can discriminate genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens from noncarcinogens, with a typical sensitivity of 0.
If there is sufficient evidence that the MOA leading to cancer is nonlinear, then the assessment does not provide a quantitative estimate of risk but proceeds in a manner similar to that for noncarcinogens.
The Davis and Svendsgaard database consists of results for noncarcinogens, and the remaining 76--88% of dose responses would be threshold responses.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 1993) has classified aflatoxin as a group 1 human carcinogen; ochratoxins and fumonosins as group 2B possible human carcinogens; and trichothecenes and zearalenone as noncarcinogens (group 3).
EPA's Region III Air Radiation and Toxics Division using the TRI databases and chronic oral toxicity factors and total mass for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens to estimate the relative hazards of TRI chemicals.
Evaluation of transgenic mouse bioassays for identifying carcinogens and noncarcinogens.
EPA conducted an evaluation of the application of dose addition for noncarcinogens and response addition for carcinogens, using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System database (U.
Carcinogens and noncarcinogens can be examined separately, but they are linked by an equivalency in the toxicity weights, which allows them to be scored together.